The last date of eligibility is May 15, , which corresponds to the final day of the Mayaguez incident. In such cases, the determination is made by the Department of Defense. The names are listed in chronological order, starting at the apex on panel 1E in July 8, , moving day by day to the end of the eastern wall at panel 70E, which ended on May 25, , starting again at panel 70W at the end of the western wall which completes the list for May 25, , and returning to the apex at panel 1W in There are some deaths that predate July 8, , including the death of Richard B. Fitzgibbon Jr. The names of 32 men were erroneously included in the memorial, and while those names remain on the wall, they have been removed from the databases and printed directories.
The extra names resulted from a deliberate decision to err on the side of inclusiveness, with 38 questionable names being included. One person, whose name was added as late as , had gone AWOL immediately upon his return to the United States after his second completed tour of duty. His survival only came to the attention of government authorities in These survivor names could be removed if the panel their name is on is replaced in the future.
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A short distance away from the wall is another Vietnam memorial, a bronze statue named The Three Servicemen sometimes called The Three Soldiers. The statue depicts three soldiers, purposefully identifiable as European American , African American , and Hispanic American. In their final arrangement, the statue and the Wall appear to interact with each other, with the soldiers looking on in solemn tribute at the names of their fallen comrades.
The distance between the two allows them to interact while minimizing the effect of the addition on Lin's design. The Vietnam Women's Memorial is a memorial dedicated to the women of the United States who served in the Vietnam War, most of whom were nurses. It serves as a reminder of the importance of women in the conflict.
It depicts three uniformed women with a wounded soldier. A memorial plaque, authorized by Pub. The plaque is a carved block of black granite, 3 by 2 feet 0. We honor and remember their sacrifice. Visitors to the memorial may take a piece of paper and place it over a name on the wall and rub a wax crayon or graphite pencil over it as a memento of their loved ones .
This is called rubbing . Visitors to the memorial began leaving sentimental items at the memorial at its opening. One story claims this practice began during construction when a Vietnam veteran threw the Purple Heart his brother received posthumously into the concrete of the memorial's foundation. Several thousand items are left at the memorial each year. The largest item left at the memorial was a sliding glass storm door with a full-size replica "tiger cage". The door was painted with a scene from Vietnam and the names of U.
VVMF , was incorporated as a non-profit organization to establish a memorial to veterans of the Vietnam War. Much of the impetus behind the formation of the fund came from a wounded Vietnam veteran, Jan Scruggs , who was inspired by the film The Deer Hunter , with support from fellow Vietnam veterans such as retired Navy chaplain Arnold Resnicoff.
Congress announced that the winner of a design competition would design the park. On March 30, , 1, designs were submitted.
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Each entry was identified by number only, to preserve the anonymity of their authors. All entries were examined by each juror; the entries were narrowed down to , then Finally, the jury selected entry number , designed by Maya Lin. The selected design was very controversial, in particular, its unconventional design, its black color and its lack of ornamentation. Ross Perot and James Webb , withdrew their support once they saw the design.
Said Webb, "I never in my wildest dreams imagined such a nihilistic slab of stone. In the words of Scruggs, "It has become something of a shrine. Negative reactions to Maya Lin 's design created a controversy; a compromise was reached by commissioning Frederick Hart who had placed third in the original design competition to produce a bronze figurative sculpture in the heroic tradition.
Vietnam Veterans Memorial - Wikipedia
Opponents of Lin's design had hoped to place this sculpture of three soldiers at the apex of the wall's two sides. Lin objected strenuously to this, arguing that this would make the soldiers the focal point of the memorial, and her wall a mere backdrop. A compromise was reached, and the sculpture was placed off to one side to minimize the impact of the addition on Lin's design.
On October 13, , the U. Commission of Fine Arts approved the erection of a flagpole to be grouped with sculptures. On March 11, , the revised design was formally approved, and on March 26, , the ground was formally broken. Stone for the wall came from Bangalore , Karnataka , India. It was chosen because of its reflective quality and also because of opposition to Swedish and Canadian stone, as those countries were destinations for draft evaders.
Stone cutting and fabrication were done in Barre, Vermont. The typesetting of the original 57, names on the wall was performed by Datalantic in Atlanta , Georgia. Stones were then shipped to Memphis, Tennessee where the names were etched.
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The etching was completed using a photoemulsion and sandblasting process. The negatives used in the process are in storage at the Smithsonian Institution. The memorial was dedicated on November 13, , after a march to its site by thousands of Vietnam War veterans. About two years later the Three Soldiers statue was dedicated. Since , over names have been added to the memorial, but not necessarily in chronological order. Some were men who died in Vietnam but were left off the list due to clerical errors. Others died after , and their deaths were determined by the Department of Defense to be the direct result of their Vietnam service.
For those who died during the war, their name is placed in a position that relates to their date of death. For those who died after the war, their name is placed in a position that relates to the date of their injury. Because space is usually not available in the exact right place, names are placed as close to their correct chronological position as possible, but usually not in the exact spot. The order could be corrected as panels are replaced.
Furthermore, over names have been identified as misspelled.
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In some cases, the correction could be done in place. In others, the name had to be chiseled again elsewhere, moving them out of chronological order. Others have remained in place, with the misspelling, at the request of their family. Before Goodacre's design was selected, two design entries had been awarded as co-finalists - one a statue and the other a setting - however, the two designs were unable to be reconciled.
Goodacre's original design for the Women's Memorial statue included a standing figure of a nurse holding a Vietnamese baby, which although not intended as such, was deemed a political statement, and it was asked that this be removed. She replaced them with a figure of a kneeling woman holding an empty helmet. On November 10, , a memorial plaque, authorized by Pub.
The organization was disbanded, but their web site  is maintained by the Vietnam War Project at Texas Tech University. Items left at the Vietnam Veterans Memorial are collected by National Park Service employees and transferred to the NPS Museum Resource Center, which catalogs and stores all items except perishable organic matter such as fresh flowers and unaltered U. The flags are redistributed through various channels. From to , selected items from the collection were placed on exhibit at the Smithsonian Institution 's National Museum of American History as "Personal Legacy: The Healing of a Nation" including the Medal of Honor of Charles Liteky , who renounced it in by placing the medal at the memorial in an envelope addressed to then-president Ronald Reagan.
There are several transportable replicas of the Vietnam Veteran's Memorial created so those who are not able to travel to Washington, D. Located at S.
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Now known as "Wall South," the half-size replica bears the names of all Americans killed or missing in Southeast Asia and is updated each Mother's Day. A Global War on Terror Memorial is planned to be completed in and will include an artifact from the World Trade Center as a component of the sculpture. The memorial wall is an almost half-size granite replica of the National Vietnam Memorial, and the only permanent memorial north of the nation's capital. Plans for the Vietnam War Memorial in Winfield began in when friends who had gathered for a class reunion wanted to find a way to honor their fallen classmates.
The project quickly grew from honoring only Cowley County servicemen to representing all servicemen and nurses from Kansas who lost their lives or are missing in action from the Vietnam War. Dedicated in , the foot wall is constructed with black granite mined from the same quarry in India as the original. According to Utah Vietnam Veterans of America, the wall is 80 percent of the original size of the memorial in Washington, D. The memorial was officially opened and dedicated on July 14, Located in Elizabethtown, Kentucky, opened in Located in Augusta, Georgia, opened in , the Augusta-CSRA Vietnam War Veterans Memorial is not a replica but follows the principles set forth by the national monument of honoring those fallen in Vietnam with inscriptions of the names, total, who made the supreme sacrifice in Vietnam.